Eugene Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up

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This working page is part of the Climate Planning] project, an independent pubic interest consulting project intended to provide background technical analysis in support of the official Climate and Energy Action Plan (CEAP)] project.

For several reasons, the structure, items, and text of this mock-up plan are based upon and derived heavily from the Portland, Oregon Climate Plan 2009.

At our Climate Planning] page, here at EugeneNeighbors.org, work is currently in progress on an analysis of the Climate Plan 2010 May Draft].

Climate Planning] > Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up] > Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Eugene Climate Plan Technical Carbon Budget| Technical Carbon Budget] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 1 - Buildings and Energy|Sector 1 - Buildings and Energy] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 2 - Land Use and Mobility|Sector 2 - Land Use and Mobility] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 3 - Consumption and Solid Waste|Sector 3 - Consumption and Solid Waste] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 4 - Urban Forestry|Sector 4 - Urban Forestry] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 5 - Food and Agriculture|Sector 5 - Food and Agriculture] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 6 - Community Engagement|Sector 6 - Community Engagement] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 7 - Climate Change Preparation|Sector 7 - Climate Change Preparation] - Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 8 - Local Government Operations|Sector 8 - Local Government Operations] -

Contents

Eugene Mock-Up Plan Carbon Budget

This mock-up carbon budget is constructed from broadly accepted mainstream numbers, using a minimum of assumptions. The carbon budget starts with the official City of Eugene greenhouse gas emissions inventory of 2007, and factors in official population projections, with levels simply adjusted to meet the State of Oregon adopted emissions reduction targets.

As well as providing a concrete reference projection of mainstream climate planning targets, this carbon budget may also help illuminate the linear implications of basic facts and choices already made and acknowledged by state and local elected officials.

Summary of Eugene Projected Plan - Carbon Budget

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Eugene Climate Plan Technical Carbon Budget|Expanded technical version of projected carbon budget]

Eugene GHG Emission Budget 1990 2005 2020 Relative to 1990 (10% reduction) 2050 Relative to 1990 (75% reduction)
Total carbon emissions (metric tons) 911,965 1,258,524 820,769 90 % 227,991 25 %
Population (official projections) 112,733 146,160 175,515 156 % 383,135 (?) 340 %
Per person carbon emissions (metric tons) 8.1 8.6 4.7 58 % 0.6 7 %
Passenger (vehicle, only) miles/day/person (LCOG simulated) (Savings 50/50 technology/VMT) 17.6 15.2 10.8 61 % 3.2 18 %
Electricity (kWh per person) 17,072 15,656 9,869 58 % 1,256 7 %
Natural gas (Therms per person) 440 564 254 58 % 32 7 %

source: Eugene Community Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report, July 2007, p3, 22, 2050 population: Population Projections for 2004 Wastewater Facilities Plan

Comparison of Potential Eugene GHG Reduction 2020 Targets

2020 Target Total Eugene GHG emissions tonnes/yr  % Change in per capita GHG from BAU Per capita CO2 tonnes/yr
Business as usual (BAU) 1,528,199 = 8.8
Meet 1990 Levels 911,964 - 40 % 5.2
Kyoto Protocol (7% < 1990) 848,127 - 45 % 4.9
Oregon Adopted (HB 3543, 10% < 1990) 820,768 - 46 % 4.7

sources: Eugene Community Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report, July 2007, p14, Oregon House Bill 3543: Global Warming Actions

Eugene Mock-Up Climate Plan Actions

"Focuses principally on major actions to be taken in the next three years to shift the community emissions trajectory." (following Eugene, p8)

"O-" denotes ' 2030 Objectives '. "A-" denotes ' 2012 Actions '.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 1 - Buildings and Energy|Sector 1 - Buildings and Energy] 2030 Objectives

O-1. Reduce the total energy use of all buildings built before 2010 by 25 percent.

To be on track to reach the 2050 emissions reduction target, all buildings must consume 25 percent less energy than today. By 2030, many new and highly efficient buildings will have been built that will consume less than half the energy of today's buildings. However, because over two-thirds of the buildings that will exist in 2030 are in place today, existing buildings must be retrofitted with energy-saving measures to achieve the necessary aggregate building efficiency improvements.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-1.1 - Establish an investment fund of at least $50 million in public and private capital to provide easy access to low-cost financing to residents and businesses for energy performance improvements.
  • A-1.2 - Require energy performance ratings and consumption disclosures for all homes so that owners, tenants and prospective buyers can make informed decisions.
  • A-1.3 - Require energy performance benchmarking for all commercial and multi-family buildings.
  • A-1.4 - Provide resources and incentives to residents and businesses on carbon-reduction actions in existing buildings, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, choice of materials and building re-use.
  • A-1.5 - Work with partner organizations to promote improved operation and maintenance practices in all commercial buildings.
  • A-1.6 - Establish a City business tax credit for installing solar panels and ecoroofs together.

O-2. Achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions in all new buildings and homes.

The optimal time to begin addressing building efficiency is in the initial building design stage. Buildings that have been designed and built with performance as a primary goal are capable of significantly outperforming similar, previously built buildings that have been retrofitted for efficiency. Because total emissions from buildings must be reduced by much more than can be accomplished with retrofits alone, it is critical that buildings built after 2030 generate more energy from clean sources than they consume, resulting in a net emissions reduction.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-2.1 - Participate actively in the process to revise the Oregon building code to codify the performance targets of Architecture 2030.
(A-2.1 was - Adopt green building incentives for high performance new construction. )
  • A-2.2 - Adopt incentives for high performance new construction projects that consider life-cycle carbon emissions impacts.
  • A-2.3 - Accelerate existing efforts to provide green building design assistance, education and technical resources to residents, developers, designers and builders.

O-3. Produce 10 percent of the total energy used within (define area - was Multnomah County) from on-site renewable sources and clean district energy systems.

Current projections anticipate that the population of Multnomah County will increase by more than 30 percent by 2030, with a corresponding increase in demand for energy. State law requires that by 2025, 25 percent of all electricity sold in Oregon be generated from clean renewable sources. Some of these sources will take the form of utility-scale wind farms or solar facilities located far from population centers. Districtand neighborhoodscale energy systems, as well as on-site renewables and distributed generation sources, also provide opportunities for efficiency gains by reducing transmission losses.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-3.1 - Make the investment fund referenced in Objective 1, above, available to finance distributed generation and district energy systems.
  • A-3.2 - Establish at least one district heating and cooling system.
  • A-3.3 - Facilitate the installation of at least ten megawatts of on-site renewable energy, such as solar energy.
  • A-3.4 - Collaborate to reduce the role of carbon including from coal and natural gas sources in Portland's electricity mix.

O-4. Ensure that new buildings and major remodels can adapt to the changing climate.

A building constructed today will likely be in place for a century or more, and the climate will change considerably over the building's life. Buildings need to anticipate and be able to adapt to physical changes -higher temperatures, for example, and more severe rainstorms -as well as economic changes, like higher energy prices. Strategies to prepare for these changes include fundamental design elements, like the orientation of the building to allow for cross-breezes and minimize west-facing window area; structural changes, like stronger roofs to withstand windstorms; and specific technologies, like whole-house fans to enable low-cost cooling.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-4.1 - Participate actively in state of Oregon codedevelopment processes to ensure that building codes support buildings that can adapt to higher temperatures, stronger storms, and other physical impacts of climate change.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 2 - Land Use and Mobility|Sector 2 - Land Use and Mobility] 2030 Objectives

O-5. Create vibrant neighborhoods where 90 percent of Eugene residents and 80 percent of (define area - was Multnomah County) residents can easily walk or bicycle to meet all basic daily, non-work needs and have safe pedestrian or bicycle access to transit.

Create vibrant neighborhoods where 90 percent of Portland residents and 80 percent of Multnomah County residents can easily walk or bicycle to meet all basic daily, non-work needs and have safe pedestrian or bicycle access to transit.

Despite thoughtful land-use planning and quality transportation options, residents of Multnomah County are more dependent on automobiles than are the residents of more compact cities on the East Coast and in much of the rest of the world. A critical and basic step to reduce automobile dependence is to ensure that residents live in "20-minute neighborhoods," meaning that they can comfortably fulfill their daily needs within a 20-minute walk from home.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-5.1 - The City and County both recognize the critical role of the Urban Growth Boundary in guiding the region's growth while meeting economic, environmental and social needs.
  • a. The City will advocate for accommodating all population and business growth within the existing Urban Growth Boundary, with the possible exception of industrial needs.
  • b. The County will advocate for accommodating substantially all population and business growth within the existing Urban Growth Boundary.
  • (A-5.1 was - Accommodate all population and business growth within the existing Urban Growth Boundary. )
  • A-5.2 - In the Metro Urban/Rural Reserves program, the City will advocate for adopting the low end of Urban Reserve Designations to reflect the trends in demographics, climate change, energy supply and infrastructure costs.
  • A-5.3 - Make 20-minute complete neighborhoods a core component of the Portland Plan.
  • A-5.4 - For each type of urban neighborhood, identify the land use planning changes and infrastructure investments, including public-private partnerships, that are needed to achieve a highly walkable and bikeable neighborhood and develop an implementation action plan.
  • A-5.5 - Require evaluations of major planning scenarios, Comprehensive Plan and Transportation System Plan decisions to include estimates of carbon emissions. Partner with Metro and regional jurisdictions to develop modeling tools for evaluating emissions impacts of landuse and transportation decisions and monitoring carbon emissions.
(was - Require evaluations of planning scenarios and individual land use decisions to include estimates of carbon emissions. )
  • A-5.6 - Develop a more balanced funding mechanism and adopt a schedule for public investments to make neighborhoods highly walkable and bikeable, including sidewalks and improved access to transit for reaching destinations beyond a reasonable walking or biking distance.
(was - Adopt a schedule of funding for public investments to make neighborhoods highly walkable. Coordinate complimentary land use developments.)
  • A-5.7 - Partner with federal agencies, including Housing and Urban Development, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Transportation, on efforts like the joint Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities to apply new federal priorities around sustainable development in Portland and Multnomah County.
  • A-5.8 - Seek funding to accelerate remediation of brownfields in the city and county to accommodate growth within the current Urban Growth Boundary.
  • A-5.9 - Work with Metro and other local governments to make reducing carbon emissions and adapting to climate change impacts a funding criteria for the Metro Policy Advisory Committee and the Joint Policy Advisory Committee on Transportation.
  • A-5.10 - Coordinate decisions about future Streetcar investments with Portland Plan land use decisions.
(was - Complete the Streetcar Master Plan and fund the next eight miles of streetcar lines. )
  • A-5.11 - Facilitate the aggregation of smaller land parcels which, when aggregated, provide opportunities for industrial development.

O-6. Reduce per capita daily vehicle miles traveled by 30 percent from 2008 levels.

As of 2005, the per capita daily passenger vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) in the Portland region are about eight percent above 1990 levels. (Figure 11). To be on target for the 2050 goals, per capita daily passenger VMT must decline by about 30 percent from today's by 2030. This reduction must occur in addition to vehicle fuel efficiency improvements and the development of cleaner fuels. Reducing per capita VMT while maintaining the mobility of, and access to services for, Portland and Multnomah County residents will require significant growth in walking, bicycling and transit (Figures 12 and 13). The current Transportation System Plan projects that drive-alone trips will decrease from 62 percent in 1994 to 57 percent in 2020 (Figure 14). To achieve the 2030 objective, VMT reductions will need to accelerate dramatically from the current trajectory. The benefits of this shift will do more than protect the climate because the average Portland household spends about 20 percent of household income on transportation, reductions in VMT can significantly increase disposable income.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-6.1 - Establish a sustainable funding source adequate to maintain the existing transportation system and to invest in transportation capital projects and programs that reduce carbon emissions.
  • A-6.2 - Account for greenhouse gas emissions from investments in and the performance of the transportation system.
  • a. Establish a method for projecting the life cycle carbon footprint of transportation investments, including embodied energy, operations (VMT and flow) and maintenance.
  • b. Develop a reporting mechanism for tracking transportation carbon emissions. The report will include key performance measures and will document progress toward emission reduction goals. Key measures include commute mode share, VMT by vehicle type, traffic flow on major arterials and highways, fuel efficiency of vehicles and total carbon emissions from the transportation system.
  • A-6.3 - Support investments to provide high-performance broadband connectivity to every business and residence to enable widespread e-commerce, telecommuting and improved emergency response.
  • A-6.4 - Work with regional partners including the Oregon Department of Transportation, Metro, local cities and counties, and TriMet to reduce VMT through strategic investments and policies.
  • a. Work with metro-area, state, regional, and federal agencies to develop a strategy for high-speed rail from Eugene to Vancouver, B.C.
  • b. Participate in developing least cost planning methodologies to achieve mobility greenhouse gas emission reduction goals.
  • c. Work with Metro and the Oregon Department of Transportation to support investments and policies that help the region meet the carbon emission, VMT-reduction and mode-share goals.
  • d. Work with TriMet and Metro to revise the system service plan to reflect the modeshare goals of this plan and to develop an investment strategy that includes infrastructure to support connectivity and safe routes to transit.
  • e. Partner with Metro to implement the Household Activity Survey in 2010 and beyond.
  • A-6.5 - Update the Transportation System Plan to incorporate mode-share goals that will result in a 40 percent reduction in transportation-related carbon emissions by 2030.
(was - * Update the Transportation System Plan to incorporate mode-share goals that will result in a 50 percent reduction in transportation-related emissions by 2030.)
  • A-6.6 - Prioritize funding for low-carbon transportation and access projects, policies and programs that will achieve emission reduction goals while also balancing safety, maintenance and freight movement. Efforts already underway include:
  • a. Build the Eastside Streetcar (3.3 miles of track) and complete the analysis of the next streetcar corridor.
  • b. Implement SmartTrips Portland to 30,000 households each year.
(was - * Expand the Smart Trips(ref) program to a county-wide effort to reach each resident at least once every five years. )
  • c. Expand Safe Routes to School to serve all schools in Portland.
  • d. Provide TriMet passes to all high-school students in Portland.
  • e. Build 15 miles of bicycle boulevards before 2010 and aggressively implement the City's Bicycle Master Plan.
  • (was - Fund the first tier of improvements identified in the City's Bicycle Master Plan and adopt a schedule of funding to address subsequent improvements.
  • f. Complete the design of the Green Line to Milwaukee and participate in a regional lightrail system plan.
  • g. Construct two miles of sidewalks on arterials (SE 122nd Avenue, NE/SE 82nd Avenue, and SW Barbur Boulevard).
  • h. Incorporate improved bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in the redesign of the Sellwood Bridge.
  • i. Require a minimum amount of long-term bicycle parking spaces for multi-dwelling development in areas other than the dwelling unit.
  • A-6.7 - Help establish at least two new transportation management associations and two new parking management districts.
  • (changed item, was - Invest in advanced telecommunications infrastructure to enable widespread e-commerce and telecommuting. )
  • (changed item, was - Implement appropriate pricing mechanisms on driving such as congestion pricing, tolls and parking pricing and direct these funds to infrastructure for non-automobile transportation modes and programs to promote their use. )
  • (changed item, was - Expand the Smart Trips(ref) program to a county-wide effort to reach each resident at least once every five years. )
  • (changed item, was - Allocate transportation expenditures among maintenance and infrastructure projects to improve the target mode shares. )
  • (changed item, was - Together with Metro and TriMet, develop a joint funding schedule for infrastructure improvements such as sidewalks and improved access to destinations beyond a reasonable walking distance. )
  • (changed item, was - Identify the steps necessary to create a world-class bicycle system throughout Eugene and (define area - was Multnomah County).)

O-7. Improve the efficiency of freight movement within and through the Portland metropolitan area.

Many of the policies to reduce vehicle miles traveled described above will benefit freight movement, relieving congestion and improving traffic flow for all vehicles. The benefits to commercial vehicles are particularly promising, since vehicles tend to be larger and require more fuel to accelerate and idle, increasing the benefits from improved traffic flow. In addition to reducing fuel use, improved efficiency in the movement of diesel-powered vehicles also creates opportunities to reduce emissions of soot, which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Central to the efficiency of the freight system is the location of industrial areas and the integration with the regional transportation system. The Portland area is a major freight hub, with strong shipping, rail, barge and highway interconnections. Minimizing emissions from freight movement requires protecting these facilities and continuing to connect them to the transportation system.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-7.1 - Protect existing intermodal freight facilities and support centrally located and regionally significant industrial areas that may provide for future intermodal facilities and provide for efficient local deliveries.
  • A-7.2 - Work with the Portland Freight Committee and other regional partners to develop a plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions related to freight movement within and through the Portland region.
  • A-7.3 - Facilitate the aggregation of smaller land parcels which, when combined, provide opportunities for industrial development.

O-8. Increase the average fuel efficiency of passenger vehicles to 40 miles per gallon and improve performance of the road system.

With the 2009 announcement of proposed uniform federal standards for both vehicle fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas standards, the pace of fleet-wide fuel-efficiency improvements in new vehicles appears likely to accelerate. Current federal standards require that the average fuel economy of new vehicles must be 35 miles per gallon by 2020; if implemented successfully, the new federal standards would achieve the same performance by 2016. It is essential to continue to improve fuel efficiency across all vehicle classes and with predictable improvements to reduce uncertainty in markets for emerging technologies; it is equally important for consumers to choose the most efficient vehicle that meets their needs.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-8.1 - Support progressive strengthening of federal fuel efficiency standards.
  • A-8.2 - Work with Oregon Department of Transportation to identify and fund the system and demand management projects that have the greatest potential to reduce emissions related to congestion, idling, and system performance.
  • A-8.3 - Work with Oregon Department of Transportation and Metro to implement a congestion-pricing pilot program that prioritizes movement of freight and non-single-occupancy vehicles.

O-9. Reduce the lifecycle green-house gas emissions of transportation fuels by 20 percent.

Portland's 2007 requirement that all fuel sold in the city contain minimum amounts of biofuels has already been a success. Biofuels have become widely accepted in Portland and Multnomah County, and manufacturers are beginning to design engines to accept higher blends of biofuels. Additional fuel-related emissions reductions will be possible as a new generation of more sustainable alternative transportation fuels ( e.g., cellulosic ethanol and electricity) becomes commercially available. In 2009, the state of Oregon enabled the establishment of a statewide low-carbon fuel standard that will take into account lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. By 2020, the standard will require a 10 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels from 2010 levels.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-9.1 - Accelerate the transition to plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles by supporting the installation of a network of electric car charging stations.
  • A-9.2 - Implement the second phase of the City's renewable fuels standard to require that diesel fuel sold in Portland include at least 10 percent biodiesel, half of which must be made from sources that can be produced in Oregon.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 3 - Consumption and Solid Waste|Sector 3 - Consumption and Solid Waste] 2030 Objectives

O-10. Reduce total solid waste generated by 25 percent.

Portland's recycling rate is among the highest in the U.S., reaching 64 percent in 2007, almost twice the national average of 33 percent. Total solid waste generated, however, refers to both the amount of materials sent to landfills and the amount of materials recovered (i.e., recycled, composted, converted to energy or otherwise put to a use other than the original intended purpose). At the current growth rate for solid waste generation, the Portland area in 2030 will generate over one and a half times the amount of waste it generates today (Figure 16). Given expected population growth, a 25 percent reduction in total waste from current levels means that, on a per capita basis, residents and businesses must generate about half the waste in 2030 that they do today. The Portland Recycles Plan, adopted by Portland City Council in 2007, establishes an objective of reducing per capita waste generation to 2005 levels by 2015. This objective is consistent with the statewide goal of limiting per capita waste generation to 2005 levels and limiting total waste generation to 2009 levels.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-10.1 - Work with partner organizations to encourage businesses and residents to purchase durable, repairable and reusable goods; to reduce the amount of materials that go to waste, including food; and to reduce consumption of carbon-intensive consumer goods and services.
(was - Encourage businesses and residents to purchase new and reused goods with minimal packaging that are durable, repairable and reusable. )
  • A-10.2 - Develop a measurement and evaluation mechanism to track waste prevented through preservation, re-use and thoughtful consumption.

O-11. Recover 90 percent of all waste generated.

As noted above, in 2007, 64 percent of all waste generated in Portland was diverted from landfill disposal. Given available technology, only nine percent of the total amount of waste generated cannot readily be recycled. This means more than 90 percent can be recovered. Portland has established a city-wide objective of recovering 75 percent of all waste by 2015. In 2008 it adopted a detailed plan to help businesses comply with that requirement.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-11.1 - Complete the implementation of mandatory commercial food waste collection in Eugene and begin collection of residential food waste.
  • A-11.2 - Assist 1,000 businesses per year to improve compliance with requirement of paper, metal and glass recycling.
  • A-11.3 - Together with Metro and Department of Environmental Quality, create and periodically update a regional waste management hierarchy that reflects energy and greenhouse gas emissions as key factors in prioritizing such technologies as commercial composting, digestors, plasmafication and waste-to-energy systems.
  • A-11.4 - Regulate solid waste collection for unincorporated (define area - was Multnomah County).
  • A-11.5 - Provide technical assistance to contractors and construction firms to meet Eugene’s new requirement to recycle 75 percent of construction and demolition debris, giving priority to salvage and reuse activities.
  • A-11.6 - Institute post-collection sorting for municipal solid waste, particularly for waste coming from sectors like multifamily housing that are typically underperforming on recycling.
  • A-11.7 - Participate actively in the process to develop state and federal product stewardship legislation.
  • A-11.8 - Explore mandatory residential recycling.
  • A-11.9 - Clearly label trash cans and other garbage receptacles as "landfill".
  • A-11.10 - Establish public place recycling in Central Portland.

O-12. Reduce the greenhouse gas impacts of the waste collection system by 40 percent.

As of 2007, haulers in Portland are required to use at least 20 percent biodiesel in trucks used to collect waste in Portland. Waste collection-related carbon emissions can be further reduced by reducing the miles driven by garbage and recycling trucks and by utilizing even cleaner transportation fuels and emission-control technologies.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-12.1 - Provide weekly curbside collection of food waste, other compostable materials and recycling. Shift standard residential garbage collection to every other week.
  • A-12.2 - Complete the installation of particulate filters on pre-2007 waste collection vehicles to reduce particulate emissions. Older trucks that are not good candidates for retrofit should be phased out of operation.
  • A-12.3 - Evaluate actions under the Portland Recycles! Plan and consider additional regulatory options to improve the efficiency of commercial collection service.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 4 - Urban Forestry|Sector 4 - Urban Forestry and Natural Systems] 2030 Objectives

O-13. Expand the forest canopy to cover one-third of Eugene, and at least 50 percent of total stream and river length in the city meet urban water temperature goals as an indicator of watershed health.

Currently, the Portland urban forest covers 26 percent of Portland and removes 88,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere per year, equal to about one percent of all local carbon emissions. Should the urban forest's capacity to sequester carbon dioxide be compromised, Portland will have to reduce emissions beyond the 80 percent goal to compensate. Resilient watersheds are a key response to a changing climate, and water temperature is a primary indicator of watershed health. This plan seeks to reduce urban stream temperatures so that at least 50 percent of the total stream and river length in the city has a 7-day average daily maximum less than 64 degrees F in the tributaries and 68 degrees F for the Willamette. The City of Portland's "Grey to Green" initiative is an example of the kinds of programs and actions that must be implemented to achieve this objective.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-13.1 - Expand public and private programs to encourage planting, preserving and maintaining trees and shrubs, controlling invasive species, and reducing and cooling impervious areas, including removing regulatory obstacles and exploring incentives.
(was - Expand public and private programs to encourage planting and preserving trees. )
  • A-13.2 - Acquire, restore and protect natural resources to promote functional watersheds and forest ecosystems, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air and water quality, connect habitats, and contribute to regional health, biodiversity, and resiliency.
(was - Acquire, restore and protect open spaces to promote functional forest ecosystems with high potential to sequester carbon dioxide. )
  • A-13.3 - Develop and implement an outreach campaign to provide educational resources to residents about the benefits of trees, watershed health, and green infrastructure.
(was -Develop and implement an outreach campaign to provide educational resources to residents about the benefits of trees, tree care and tree regulations. )
  • A-13.4 - Recognize trees, shrubs, vegetation and natural landscapes as assets of the City and County infrastructure. Advocate for similar recognition by state and federal agencies. Explore the feasibility of managing street trees and other public trees as capital assets.
(was - Recognize trees as a capital asset to City and County infrastructure.)
  • A-13.5 - Clarify codes and policies to maximize the preservation of the largest, longest-living trees, and ensure expansion of the urban forest over time. Encourage tree species and age diversity and increase canopy in tree-deficient areas. (age diversity?)
  • A-13.6 - Evaluate both green and traditional grey alternatives for public infrastructure projects. Develop final designs that support the restoration, enhancement, and protection of Portland's urban forest and watershed health.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 5 - Food and Agriculture|Sector 5 - Food and Agriculture] 2030 Objectives

O-14. Reduce consumption of carbon- intensive foods.

From a carbon perspective, not all food is created equal. As shown in Figure 18, consumption of red meat (beef and pork), for example, results in more than twice the carbon emissions, on a per-calorie basis, of dairy products, almost three times that of chicken, fish, eggs, fruits and vegetables, and almost eight times the emissions of cereals and carbohydrates. Red meat production is significantly more carbon intensive than other foods because: (a) the digestive process of cattle produces large amounts of methane gas and (b) over 30 calories of inputs are often needed to produce one calorie of beef.22 If the average household were to shift the calories of one day's meat and dairy consumption per week to grains and vegetables, the resulting carbon emissions reductions would be equivalent to driving approximately 10 percent less per year.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-14.1 - Include food choice as a component of the public engagement campaign (Objective 16) that inspires the community to live a climatefriendly lifestyle.
(was - Create a public engagement campaign highlighting food choice as a key action to live a climate-friendly lifestyle. )
  • A-14.2 - Create City and County partnerships with healthcare, schools and other organizations to promote healthy, low-carbon diets.

O-15. Significantly increase the consumption of local food.

Significantly increase the consumption of local food. A county-wide urban food and agriculture initiative promotes a long-term vision of a city and county that can grow a significant portion of its food. A community-based, local food system can reshape the community's relationship to food and provide substantial environmental, economic, social and health benefits. A public-private initiative can significantly increase the amount of home-grown food and reduce the carbon intensity of the food chain.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-15.1 - Integrate sustainable food system issues, and where practical, quantitative goals and metrics, into planning processes, including the City's Portland Plan and the Multnomah Food Initiative.
(was - Establish joint City-County institutional capacity to support the development of a strong local food system. Provide policy direction and resources to significantly increase the percentage of home-grown and locally-sourced food. )
  • A-15.2 - Identify and implement City and County strategies to encourage local food production and distribution, including providing incentives and removing regulatory obstacles.
(was - Work to reestablish funding to the (define area - was Multnomah County) Extension Service. )
  • A-15.3 - Develop policy and provide programmatic resources to significantly increase the percentage of home-grown and locally sourced food, including the support of farmers markets and community supported agriculture; the use of public and private land and rooftops for growing food; promoting fruit and nut trees as options for the 33,000 yard trees to be planted as part of the Grey to Green initiative; and develop or facilitate 1,000 new community garden plots.
(was - Increase the viability of farmers’ markets, community gardens, community-supported agriculture farms and home-grown food through qualitative goals. Integrate these goals into all planning processes. )
  • A-15.4 - Provide educational opportunities for residents to gain skills in organic gardening, fruit production, animal husbandry, food preservation and cooking, and aff ordable, healthy eating.
(was - Provide educational opportunities for residents that will enable them to grow fruit and vegetables at their place of residence and in cooperation with their neighbors. )
  • A-15.5 - Multnomah County to work to reestablish funding to the Oregon State University Extension Service.
(was - Encourage the use of public and private urban land and rooftops for growing food and remove obstacles to local food production. )
  • A-15.6 - Establish quantitative metrics for consumption of regionally sourced food.
(was - Create 1,300 new community garden plots.)

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 6 - Community Engagement|Sector 6 - Community Engagement] 2030 Objectives

O-16. Motivate all (define area - was Multnomah County) residents and businesses to change their behavior in ways that reduce carbon emissions.

Motivate all Multnomah County residents and businesses to change their behavior in ways that reduce carbon emissions.

A successful community engagement campaign must tie together existing efforts, develop new initiatives and forge a partnership between government and the community. Reaching this objective requires cooperation among governments, neighborhoods, schools, non-profit organizations, faith communities, businesses, civic organizations and individual community members.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-16.1 - In partnership with businesses, universities, schools, non-profit organizations, community groups, public agencies, and existing efforts, develop a community-wide public engagement campaign to promote carbon emission reductions.
  • A-16.2 - Establish a business leadership council to catalyze the business community to create a prosperous low-carbon economy.
  • A-16.3 - Establish and publicize climate action metrics by neighborhood, including measures such as household energy use, vehicle miles traveled, walkability and bicycle commute rates.
  • A-16.4 - Partner with the Portland Sustainability Institute to bring together academia, businesses and government to foster policy development, best practices and collaboration to address climate change.
  • A-16.5 - Expand opportunities for residents and business, especially in historically underserved areas, to learn how to track and manage energy use, improve efficiency and adapt to a changing climate.
  • A-16.6 - Seek funding to support neighborhood and community groups in the implementation of carbon-reduction projects and programs.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 7 - Climate Change Preparation|Sector 7 - Climate Change Preparation] 2030 Objectives

O-17. Adapt successfully to a changing climate.

Climate change is already affecting Portland and Multnomah County. To adapt, the region must understand and prepare for change. This work has already begun. In 2002, for example, the Portland Water Bureau analyzed potential impacts of climate change on supply and demand for potable water. At a regional level, the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute and University of Washington Climate Impacts Group are leaders in advanced scientific research on likely climate change impacts.

A comprehensive review should be undertaken to better understand the likely impacts of climate change. Because of the long lead time necessary for some of the adaptive actions that may be required, it is key that this review and resulting recommendations take place soon, and include: Impact areas such as infrastructure, energy, economy, transportation, water, food, stormwater management, social and health services, public safety, environment and biodiversity, population migrations and emergency preparedness. Planning arenas that the City or County manages or for which they set policy. Co-benefits of preparation efforts.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-17.1 - Prepare an assessment of climate-related vulnerabilities, strengths and resiliency of local food, water and energy supplies, infrastructure, transportation and freight movement, floodplains, watershed health, public health, public safety, social services and emergency preparedness.
(was - Prepare an assessment of climate-related vulnerabilities of local food, water and energy supplies, infrastructure and the public health system.
  • A-17.2 - Develop a climate change preparation plan that analyzes and prioritizes preparation actions to manage risks and increase overall flexibility and resiliency, assigns responsibility to appropriate bureaus or departments and ensures that disproportionate impacts on vulnerable populations are addressed.
(was - Analyze the costs and benefits of addressing major vulnerabilities identified in the assessment and prioritize preparation actions. )
  • A-17.3 - Monitor implementation of climate change preparation actions and emerging data on risks. If necessary, revise adaptation plans more frequently than the three-year revision cycle for the overall plan.
(was - Adopt a climate change preparation plan assigning responsibility to appropriate bureaus or departments to address prioritized actions.)
  • A-17.4 - Protect and restore wetlands, floodplains, wildlife habitat and corridors to strengthen the capacity of natural systems to respond to more severe weather events, streamflow changes, and flooding.
  • A-17.5 - Collaborate with Metro and state agencies to update and ensure continued accuracy of land hazard mapping and inventories, including landslide hazards, floodplains and areas subject to wildfire risk.
  • A-17.6 - Integrate climate adaptation and natural hazard mitigation strategies into major planning efforts and consider the potential for substantial numbers of "climate refugees" in contemplating future growth scenarios.
  • A-17.7 - When planning public infrastructure investments and service delivery strategies, consider the physical, social, environmental, economic, and regulatory impacts of mitigating and adapting to climate change. This may necessitate developing and using forecasts and models that account for potential climate changes and evaluating investment alternatives based on triple bottom line and climate change impacts over the lifespan of the infrastructure.

Climate Plan 2010 Mock-Up/Sector 8 - Local Government Operations|Sector 8 - Local Government Operations] 2030 Objectives

O-18. Reduce carbon emissions from City and County operations 50 percent from 1990 levels.

The City and County own and operate hundreds of buildings, thousands of streetlights and traffic signals and several large-scale industrial plants. As public entities, the City and County can invest in capital projects with relatively long payback periods and, like all businesses, need to examine every facet of operations for emissionreduction opportunities.

Actions to be completed before 2012:

  • A-18.1 - Identify funding sources to finance energy-efficiency upgrades in City and County facilities.
(was - Issue capital improvement bonds or identify other funding sources to finance energy-efficiency upgrades in City and County facilities. )
  • A-18.2 - Require that all new City and County buildings achieve Architecture 20303 performance targets.
  • A-18.3 - Convert street lighting, water pumps, water treatment and other energy intensive operations to more efficient technologies.
  • A-18.4 - Adopt and implement green building policies that include third-party certification of energy, water and waste conservation strategies.
  • A-18.5 - Purchase or generate 100 percent of all electricity required for City and County operations from renewable sources, with at least 15 percent from on-site or district renewable energy sources such as solar and biogas.
  • A-18.6 - Require that local government fleets, regulated fleets (e.g., taxis and waste/recycling haulers), and the fleets of local government contractors meet minimum fleet fuel efficiency standards and use low-carbon fuels.
  • A-18.7 - Buy electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles for City and County fleets as they become commercially available.
  • A-18.8 - Stop the growth of waste generation and recover 75 percent of all waste generated in City and County operations.
(was - Recover 85 percent of all waste generated in City and County operations. )
  • A-18.9 - As standardized carbon emissions data becomes publicly available, consider carbon emissions from the production, transportation, use and disposal of goods, including food, as a criterion in City and County purchasing decisions. Where practical, include the sustainable practices of prospective vendors, contractors and service providers as evaluation criteria.
(was - In City and County purchasing decisions, consider carbon emissions from the production, transportation, use and disposal of goods as a criterion.)
  • A-18.10 - Establish video and/or web conferencing capability in all major City and County facilities.
  • A-18.11 - Establish interbureau and interdepartmental teams to implement the Climate Action Plan and report on progress.

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